4 parts to this assignment: Summary of article:  goals of the research, independent and dependent

4 parts to this assignment:

  1. Summary of article:  goals of the research, independent and dependent variables; also have a section on EACH of these:  subjects and setting, measures and procedures, results (analysis).
  2. Internal validity:  What is it?  Why is it important? How is it addressed in your article?  (Multiple examples and citations).  Cite your learning from Hitchcock, et al (2015).
  3. External validity:  What is it?  Why is it important?  How is it addressed in your article?  (Multiple examples and citations).  Cite your learning from Hitchcock, et al (2015).
  4. Value of the study as it aligns with Single Case Design Research from the view of Kratchowill, et al (2013).

Rubric below for the assignment below:
Summary: Article is an empirical study that meets criteria for assignment. Goals,  IV and DV were correctly identified and labeled
Subjects and setting are sufficiently described 
Measures and procedures are accurately described.
Results are discussed, analyzed and compared with researcher??s
Internal Validity is fully addressed. Validity or lack of is addressed in measurement and experimental control. There are multiple examples from the study itself and from readings to support your opinion. Citations are in APA style
External Validity is fully addressed with multiple examples and references to Hitchcock, Kratochwill & Chazen (2015). Citations are in APA style.
Overall value of the study is analyzed through the lens of   Kratochwill et al. (2013). Multiple examples and references are used to justify your response. Citations are in APA style.  

Research Question

Student??s Name

Research Question

Research Question: Can scaffolding improve reading among grade 2 early childhood learners with low reading achievement?
The above research question can be studied using a single case design research because it targets a specific population. Single case design takes an evaluative approach to determine the success of a treatment or an intervention on a selected group, individuals or community so as to give evidence about the effectiveness of an intervention in general by using a sample size that is small and manageable (Kratochwill, 2015). In the above research question, the selected intervention is scaffolding which refers to the support provided to a child with reading and literacy problems and reduced as the child achieves the ability to independently execute the desired behavior. Scaffolding is rooted on the notion that regular interaction between a child and an adult or a teacher with emphasis on the achievement of desired behavior leads to improved performance in the behavior (Salem, 2017).
From the proposed research question the independent variable is the grade of the children. In this proposal, the study will focus on grade 2 children because they are expected to achieve certain reading milestones by the time, they enter the grade level. Independent variable for this proposal can therefore be defined as follows: A child in grade 2 should have a high reading achievement that is equivalent to the reading milestones of learners in the same grade. The dependent variable in this proposal is the reading achievement which can either be measured as high or low depending on the problem experienced by a learner thus calling for the need of an intervention which is scaffolding. Internal validity of the study will be improved by thoroughly identifying and selecting grade 2 learners with genuine reading problems. Additionally, the sample size will be reduced to enhance accuracy in data collection and analysis.


Kratochwill, T. R. (2015). Single-case research design and analysis: An overview.
single-case Research Design and Analysis (psychology Revivals), 1-14.

Salem, A. A. M. S. (2017). Scaffolding Reading Comprehension Skills.
English Language Teaching,
10(1), 97-111.


Description of the Study

Student??s Name

Description of the Study

The proposed study seeks to establish whether scaffolding can improve reading among grade 2 early childhood learners with low reading achievement. The measurable independent variable of the study is scaffolding which is the intervention. The variable is measured in terms of reading milestones that children are supposed to achieve by the time they attain the grade. The measurable dependent variable in the study is the reading achievement which can either be high or low. Low reading achievement among grade 2 early childhood learners calls for an intervention through scaffolding. The value of a dependent variable in a study is subject to the changes in the independent variable (Kratochwill, 2015).

Description of Single Case Design

Single case design utilizes visual analysis for the purpose of systematic comparison of the behavior of the research participants prior to an intervention and after an intervention. Behavior change that is evident after the application of an intervention is a clear indication that an intervention is effective. Single case design is used for an individual, group, groups, or community of participants (Kratochwill, 2015). A single participant can be recruited, and an intervention is applied in the case problem of the selected participant (Kratochwill, 2015). In this particular study, a group of children with reading difficulties in grade 2 will be selected to participate in the research process.
The procedures for the study will involve identifying the problem that needs the intervention. In this case, the problem is low reading achievement among a group of grade 2 students. Children in second grade should attain a number of reading milestones that include ability to apply contexts and pictures when figuring unfamiliar words, apply common punctuation and capitalization when writing, identify and read familiar words, use drawings to show story comprehension, and ability to correct themselves when they make mistakes during reading (Guernsey & Levine, 2015).
After identifying what the learners are expected to achieve, their performance in these milestones will be assessed to determine whether they have low or high achievements. The next procedure will entail designing a scaffolding intervention that will help in enhancing the achievement of each of the milestones. The process will be repeated for each of the five learners for a period of 6 weeks. The interventionist will record the performance of each learner based on how they respond with the application of the intervention. The recorded data will be analyzed, and the results of the study will be considered for generalizability and application in similar cases. To ensure internal validity

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