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1. A new chemotherapeutic medication that kills germs selectively while sparing human cells could operate through various processes. One strategy could be to target the bacterial cell wall, which human cells lack, by compromising its integrity and causing the germs to burst. Targeting bacterial ribosomes, physically distinct from human ribosomes, to specifically suppress protein production in bacteria is another prospective strategy. In addition, medicines that disrupt bacterial DNA replication or enzymes involved in bacterial metabolism may be selectively harmful to bacteria since their processes of replication and metabolism are distinct from those of human cells. Lastly, medications that target bacterial cell membranes, made of lipids and proteins distinct from those of human cell membranes, can be specifically harmful to bacteria. The key to designing a medicine that selectively targets bacteria is utilizing the structural, metabolic, and genetic differences between bacterial and human cells.
2.The wall of target cells in antibiotics contain peptidoglycan, which is made up of amino sugars and short peptide. Human cells don’t contain any peptidoglycan. An example of this would be peniciilin. Many antibiotics also target 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits. Eukaryotes don’t contain either of these subunits therefore they are not affected by antibiotics. “The sulfa drugs such as sulfonamides inhibit a critical enzyme–dihydropteroate synthase–in this process. Once the process is stopped, the bacteria can no longer grow (ScientificAmerican).” Tetracycline, an antibiotic, that also stops bacterial growth by stopping protein synthesis by targeting bacterial RNA polymerase, which is different in eukaryotes therefore RNA synthesis is not blocked.
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