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The phenomenon of interest in this qualitative study is the discrimination faced by LGBTQ individuals in housing, employment, and healthcare. This study aims to explore the nuanced experiences of discrimination that members of the LGBTQ community encounter within these contexts, shedding light on the various forms, underlying mechanisms, and impact of such discrimination.

LGBTQ discrimination is complex and impacted by a range of contextual issues. Societal attitudes, legal frameworks, organizational policies, and cultural norms that discriminate against LGBTQ individuals are examples. Race, gender identity, and socioeconomic class may interact with LGBTQ individual’s identification, producing a complex web of prejudice (Cech & Waidzunas, 2021). This research may also be affected by LGBTQ individuals’ identification openness, which may alter discriminatory visibility.

To explore LGBTQ individuals’ discrimination, the research might be done in diverse settings. These settings may include urban and rural places, LGBTQ+accepted regions, and varied social, economic, and cultural origins. The study may interview LGBTQ individuals who have suffered discrimination and critical stakeholders, including employers, landlords, healthcare providers, and lawmakers. Observations and document analysis may reveal institutional and systemic prejudice.

I was previously a therapist intern at an LGBTQ community center, so my connection to this issue comes from my role. Through direct interactions and conversations with LGBTQ individuals, I saw their housing, work, and healthcare issues. This experience inspired empathy and a desire to raise their voices. Exploring this as a qualitative study allows for a deeper understanding of life experiences, emotions, and settings surrounding discrimination. Qualitative research may capture subtleties that quantitative statistics overlook, resulting in a more holistic and empathic approach that can create significant change and promote inclusion (Denzin & Lincoln, 2011).

Due to social change implications, qualitative research on this issue is crucial. The findings might help LGBTQ individuals who have endured discrimination’s complex tales and feelings be heard. The results might educate the public, legislators, housing, employment, and healthcare experts. This understanding might transform policy and practice to safeguard LGBTQ individuals’ rights, promote inclusion, and end systematic discrimination (Denzin & Lincoln, 2011).

In conclusion, qualitative research on LGBTQ individuals’ housing, employment, and healthcare discrimination might illuminate its complex effects. My social work internship in an LGBTQ community center deepened my awareness and commitment to social change. This study might help dismantle biased institutions, promote inclusion, and create a fairer society for LGBTQ individuals by revealing concealed discrimination.


Cech, E. A., & Waidzunas, T. J. (2021). Systemic inequalities for LGBTQ professionals in STEM. Science Advances, 7(3), eabe0933. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abe0933

Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2011). The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research. In Google Books. SAGE. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=AIRpMHgBYqIC&oi=fnd&pg=PA43&dq=Erickson


To prepare for this Discussion:

· Review the Learning Resources related to coding, data analysis, and focus groups.

· Review the focus group media program found in the Learning Resources and consider how you might use a focus group in collecting data for the topic of your research.


Post your explanation of:

1. The difference between collecting data using individual interviews and a focus group (e.g., intent, selecting participants, conducting the interview or focus group)

2. Given the topic you are currently using for your research, would you consider using a focus group for your study? Why or why not?

Be sure to support your main post and response post with reference to the week??s Learning Resources and other scholarly evidence in APA style.


Required Readings

· Saldaña, J. (2021).

The coding manual for qualitative researchers

(4th ed.). Sage Publications.


· Chapter 1, ??An Introduction to Codes and Coding? (pp. 3??23)

· Chapter 3, ??Writing Analytic Memos About Narrative and Visual Data? (pp. 57??84) (previously read in Week 5)

· Rubin, H. J., & Rubin, I. S. (2012).

Qualitative interviewing: The art of hearing data

(3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

· Chapter 12, ??Data Analysis in the Responsive Interviewing Model? (pp. 189??211) (previously read in Week 5)

· Ravitch, S. M., & Carl, N. M. (2021).

Qualitative research: Bridging the conceptual, theoretical, and methodological

(2nd ed.) Sage Publications.

· Chapter 8, ??An Integrative Approach to Data Analysis? (pp. 233??252)

· Chapter 9, ??Methods and Processes of Data Analysis (pp. 254??294)

· Onwuegbuzie, A. J., Dickinson, W. B, Leech, N. L., and Zoran, A. G. (2009).

A qualitative framework for collecting and analyzing data in focus group researchLinks to an external site.


International Journal of Qualitative Methods and International Institute for Qualitative Methodology.

(pp. 1??21).

· Document:

Excel Video Coding Document Template (Excel spreadsheet) (previously used in Week 5)

Download Excel Video Coding Document Template (Excel spreadsheet) (previously used in Week 5)

Review this Excel template as you view this week??s media programs related to coding. Also, you will use this template for organizing your transcripts and preparing them for coding.

Required Media

· Walden University, LLC. (Producer). (2016).

How to plan and conduct a focus group

[Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.


The approximate length of this media piece is 10 minutes. (Previously viewed in Week 5)

In this media program, observe the focus group taking place. Think about how you might plan and conduct a focus group for your research topic.

Walden University, LLC. (Producer). (2016). Introduction to coding [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.
Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 10 minutes. (Previously viewed in Week 5)

In this media program, Dr. Susan Marcus, Core Research Faculty with the School of Psychology at Walden University, introduces you to the world of coding using Word or Excel documents. In this first video, you will learn how to organize your data.

Walden University, LLC. (Producer). (2016). From content to coding [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.
Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 12 minutes. (Previously viewed in Week 5)

In this media program, Dr. Susan Marcus, Core Research Faculty with the School of Psychology at Walden University, introduces coding and how to move from content to codes. This video focuses on what Saldaña (2016) calls ??first cycle? coding. Three different approaches are presented. Analytic memos will also be discussed.


SUSAN MARCUS: Hello. My name is Dr. Susan Marcus,
and this is an introduction to coding qualitative data. Before we get started,
I’m going to give you a definition and some
visuals of what we mean by coding qualitative data. A code in qualitative
inquiry is most often a word or a short phrase
that symbolically assigns a summative, a
summary, a salient or essence-capturing attribute,
for some portion of language, or visual data. So what does that mean? With these certain words,
short words or phrases, we’re trying to capture
a meaning that’s been attributed to,
or contributed to, by another source. So the process of
coding means we identify distinctive
features of a piece of text, and see if there are similar
features to other pieces of text from other sources. What this also means is you
can code just about anything. You can code
transcripts from videos. You can code transcripts from
written, or phone, or live, interviews. You can also code observations
of a field experience. Or code observations of a photo. So once you get anything
that you have observed, and want to include, in your
qualitative data analysis into a language-based
form, typically in the form of a transcript
in a word processing document, you can then start
the process of coding. What we’re doing
is we’re looking for patterns,
similarities in features, similarities in order
of presentation, similarities of context,
similarities in meaning. So what these marbles represent
are the different thoughts, and feelings, and
experiences, each person has about being in nature. And my quest as a
qualitative researcher to see if I can understand
each individual’s experience, and then look for shared meaning
across those experiences. So here’s person A. And
each type of experience they share is noted by
a different marble. And as a qualitative
researcher beginning to code, I say, hmm, maybe I can
first organize them according to a distinctive feature. Let’s try color. And as I’m organizing
the marbles, I see, well, some of the colors
are really distinct, and some of them are not quite
as distinct as I thought. But I’m going to group
them together anyway. So in a sense, I’ve created
a code for this person according to color. Now I’m going to
do it with the next person’s– marble’s–
experiences. And I’m going to organize
them and sort them so that they line up with, to
the best that I can surmise, the preceding person. And I’ll do the same for
the other two individuals. And as I’m doing this, I’m
also reflecting in my mind– but if I was doing this
as a qualitative study, I would be taking notes, writing
memos– about the choices I was making about where
to group, or where to put, which marble with which group. So, obviously, color is a
really easy way to sort. We could sort on size. We could sort on clarity. We could sort on whether
some of the marbles were colored, or
solid, or cat’s eyes. And voila. So I’ve sorted, I’ve coded
each individual’s experiences by color. And now, as a
qualitative researcher, I want to group
these experiences– and again, we’ll
do it by color just for the purposes
of illustration– into larger patterns
to see if there are similarities across
these different individuals. And one of the things,
for example, I would note, is that while most
of the group share this experience, indicated
by the red marbles in color, this person has a similar
kind of experience, but it’s not quite the same. So as a qualitative
researcher, I would make a note– I’m
grouping these codes together into a category that
I could call red. Noting that some of the
codes are approximations, but not identical, to
the final category. And then I can do that with
the other marbles as well. So again, you can
see that I have made groups of like objects some
of them– Oh, here’s another. Look at this. I had one set of
objects over here, but they actually
can go over here. And I also have a couple of
discrepancies that don’t really fit in any particular category. And so as a
qualitative researcher, I also have to make a decision. Do I want to force, or try and
make, every bit of information fit into a category,
or do I want to use these as what we call
discrepant cases, to explore what these individual
items or codes mean? So I hope that helps
illustrate what we mean by the process of coding. Taking individual bits of
information, grouping them. I could also try grouping
them with another approach. For example, some
of these marbles have two different colors. So I could also see
what pattern emerges if I take marbles with
two different colors and put them all in one group. And marbles with single
colors and another group. Looks different. So that’s the idea
of approaching coding from different perspectives. That is, if you code just
one way, you get one picture. But if you code taking
another approach, you may get an entirely
different picture. The other point I’d
like to share with you is the choice of
doing manual coding. What we mean by manual coding
is using basic word processing and spreadsheet tools
to move bits of data around in order to create
codes, categories, and themes. The other alternative, is
computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software. There are many, many
choices available. And of course, the advantage
of using a computer application is that you have a
bit more efficiency. They have lots of
great visual displays, and other ways to
manipulate data. The challenge is, most of
these software programs have a very steep
learning curve. So you’re learning both how
to code qualitative data and learning a software program. The other issue is that
because there are so many different kinds of
programs to choose from, you, as you become a more
experienced qualitative researcher, and if you
choose to go on and do a qualitative
dissertation, you may, after looking at
different programs, develop your own preference. Or your chair may
have a preference for which one to use. You’ll have a chance to
work with smaller data sets in this course, and
so using Excel and Word are more than acceptable. And, towards the
end of the course, you’ll also have a chance to
explore software alternatives. The other thing you’ll need
to do is create a notebook. It can be in electronic
form, like a Word document, or an actual notebook
for handwriting notes. In qualitative research,
we call these memos. Which contain your
reflections, your thoughts, your descriptions
of your process, of going from the data sources,
the transcripts, to codes, to categories, and
writing up your results. As a final note, I just want
to encourage you to use this as an opportunity to explore,
and develop new skills, and consider whether or
not this type of research is something that you
would like to pursue for your dissertation. The act of qualitative
data analysis can be laborious,
intensive, and repetitive. But it’s also the
opportunity for discovery, for something new, that’s been
generated by your participants, for the data that
you’ve collected, and perhaps even the opportunity
to discover something about yourself.


[music playing] SUSAN MARCUS: Hi. My name is Dr. Susan Marcus. And today, we’re
going to be looking at the process of going
from content to coding for qualitative data analysis. So what you’re seeing
now is a transcript of an interview done
with a graduate student about her experience
with social change and the meaning
of social change. And we’re going to prepare
this transcript for coding. So the first thing to do is to
go to Layout and line numbers and add Continuous line numbers. And see how they appear
down the left-hand column so that when we start
the process of moving this content onto our
Excel spreadsheet, you’ll be able to, if need
be, go from this spreadsheet back to the transcript
and locate where you are. The next thing to do is to
locate the questions that are going to be analyzed. Now, this interview was
about 32 minutes long and has a number of questions. For the purposes of
this demonstration, we’re going to focus on
the first four questions. But it’s really hard to
find them in the text. So I’m going to highlight those
questions and number them. So for example, if
we look down here, we can see here’s the
very first question. Could you tell me
what program did you graduate from at Walden? And I’m going to highlight that. And here is the next
question– and what year? And that’s really part
of the first question, finding out when they
were in graduate school. So let’s scroll down to
find the next question. And you’ll notice that
as I’m scrolling down, I can see in the content
that she and the interviewer are having a conversation that’s
sort of a side conversation relevant to understanding
the interviewees experience. But it’s not about the first
question or the next question that we’re looking for. So here we are. So here’s our second question. And I’m going to highlight that. And then I would do the same
for the rest of the questions that I’m going to
be transferring. And now we have the same
document with all four questions highlighted. You can see here,
for example, why it’s important to highlight
so that when the question is embedded in something that
the interviewer is saying, it’s easy to see. You can also see here below at
4a where the interviewer asked, “can you give me some
examples,” that’s an example of the interviewer
asking a probing question which is related to the
question above. So here, the interviewee
answers the question. And then the interviewer
follows up and says, well can you tell
me more about it? Can you give me more examples? We want to make sure
that when we’re coding, we have those two questions
clearly identified. So now we’re going to go
to our next document– an Excel spreadsheet. So you’re using the most
current version of Excel. So even if you’re
using a PC, that it should look fairly similar to
what you see on your video. And what we want to
do is prepare this so we’ll be able to easily
move both content and questions into the spreadsheet. So I’m going to
set up a template. And it looks like this. In the first box
up here, I’m going to put Q because the first line
is going to hold the question. In the second row
right underneath, I’m going to identify
this as where we’ll put the line numbers,
then the interviewees actual response, and then
columns for where we’re going to put our codes. You do have to spell correctly. So in your spreadsheet, you’ll
be doing the same thing. You’ll also notice
that I’m going to put a column in here called memo. Memos are a very important
part of the qualitative data analysis process. Here, because you’re going to be
doing multiple things at once, this is a great place to
put very short notes which you can expand and place in
your analytic memo notebook. So now let’s just adjust this
so it becomes more user friendly for the data analysis process. We’re going to go
under Page Layout and adjust the orientation
so we’re in Landscape. In fact, I’ll make this
a little bit bigger so it’s easier to see. Now, the response is each of
the participants actual content. So we’re going to make
that a little bit bigger. And then some room
for your coding here. And then your memo notes here. And then I’ll just create
a line so that I’ll be able to distinguish each
question and each question’s response. So the only other thing
to do here before we start is to label the tabs of the
sheet for each participant. So in this worksheet you’ll
be having each participant’s answers in each of the tabs. And I’m going to save it just
onto the desktop for now. And we’ll save it
as First Cycle. OK. So the next step here is
using the two documents at once– moving from
the Word document back and forth between the
Word document and the Excel document. Let’s go back to
our Word document and go back up to the top. Now we’re going to be moving
the questions and the content from the interview transcript
to the Excel coding sheet. And the process of doing
this is a bit laborious. But it also prepares
you for looking at the transcript
and the interview in finer, more component parts. So instead of looking at
the document holistically and the feeling that
it creates, you’re looking at each of the
little bits of text to see what individual
meanings might come through. So this is the process. We Copy and Paste the
questions above the template. And if I merge these
cells for the question, then I can highlight
each question so that as I add the content,
the questions will still be visible. And here is the
follow up question. But it still belongs
with question 1. So we’ll put it
in the same line. Now let’s move the content
underneath the question. So I go back to the interview
document and I Copy and Paste and put the content there. Now you can see that this would
be a little bit hard to read. It runs past the column. So I use the Wrap Text function. And now the text is
all in one place. I also want to remember to
put the line numbers for where the text was located. So it starts here. And you’ll see
that’s line number 9. So I’ll put that here. And I’ll do this for all
of the content for each of the questions that
we’ll be examining. Here it’s interesting
that the interviewee has mentioned a date that she
graduated and then corrected herself a little bit later on. So I’m going to put both
pieces of data in there and adjust it and put
the line number in. And then I note
that as I’m looking for the next question or
the next piece of text that the interviewee
tells an interesting story about her experience with
Bill Clinton at the graduation ceremony. Now it’s not pertinent
to the interview. But as the researcher
I think to myself, well that’s kind of interesting. So as a memo, I’m going to put
a note– “interesting story about Bill Clinton
at graduation.” So if it becomes relevant to the
data analysis or my reflection later on, I’ll know what
part of the text it came from and what I was thinking
about at the time. So it looks like that’s about
it for the first question. That was pretty straightforward. Now we’re going to get
into some of the meatier parts of the interview. So I scroll down and
find the next question about social change. And again, here, we see
that the question was asked, the interviewee
was a bit confused, and the interviewer
had to clarify. And we can see
that right here is where the actual answer starts. So I go to my Excel
spreadsheet and Copy and Paste so now I’ve got the next
question ready to go. I place the question
just like we did before. I merge the cells,
highlight it, and then start to put the text in. So she answers the
question, “yes, it was.” And I put that here. But then she explains
in more detail. Then here we have
the interviewer having a conversation
about the degree. So we have to scroll
through and see if the interviewee is
saying something else that’s relevant to the question. And she is. She tells a little
story on the side which is relevant to the question. Not directly addressing it, but
we want to put that in as well. OK. So this should give you a
good idea of the process that it’s going to take to
get from moving your content into the Excel spreadsheet. And you can see what I end up
with is units of conversation for each question. And now here’s an example
of what a finished coding spreadsheet looks like. We’ve transferred all of
the questions that we’re going to be analyzing
and all of the content for this particular interviewee. We would do the same for each
person that we interview. And again, as I said earlier,
it’s a little bit laborious. But you can see now we’ve
got a good working document. We’ve moved from the
individual transcript to moving the data and the
questions to our coding sheet. And now we’re ready
to begin the coding. [music playing]


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