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You are required to post items to the course online discussion forum (see the
syllabus for how they will be graded) that add value to the topic that is covered for
the week, linking theory to real-world examples. Reflect on the following question:
In countries such as Japan, China, India, and Iran there are gestures that convey
different meanings in comparison with gestures we use in the United States. Find an
example of a gesture or non-verbal behavior (holding hands, for example) from any
other country of the world that you did not know about. Provide a link and/or explain
the gesture, the meaning, and compare (why or why not we interpret it differently or it
does not exist in the United States)
? Analyze the questions according to the requirements for the week.
? Add one take away from this week’s article, one from this week’s practice
quiz, and one from this week’s videos – Make connections and specifically
include citations or statements from the video(s), practice quiz, and
reading(s) covered this week.
? Posts will be made in the Canvas discussion forum.
? Review the attached discussion board evaluation rubric. Evaluation
Rubric for Discussion Posts
After answering that part of the discussion, answer these posts also. In no more than 80-100
1. Chelsea Henry:
It is said that Greeks are very passionate and expressive in both verbal and
non-verbal communication. To that end, non-verbal communication is taken very
seriously, involving a number of gestures. The Mountza is a gesture where all fingers
are spread, presenting the palm towards the face of another individual. This gesture
is an insult, representing displeasure towards the receiver. The Mountza is similar to
“talk to the hand” in the United States. Americans and Greeks share the same
interpretation of this gesture because it is used the same in both countries.
One takeaway from this weeks article would be that “the purpose of a gesture is to
represent information and perhaps communicate that information”. This is important
because it proves why gestures are forms of non-verbal communication. One
takeaway from the practice quiz would be that “some lies are performed flawlessly”,
leaving no clue that it is a lie. One takeaway from “A World of Gestures”, would be
the both the demonstration and comparison of illustrators and emblems.
2. Valeria Restrepo:
The Indian head wobble is a distinctive and unusual gesture that is often employed
in India that involves gently swinging the head from side to side in a rhythmic
manner. Its meaning might change based on the context as well as the movement’s
pace and intensity. In India, it’s commonly used to express agreement,
comprehension, recognition, or even a warm welcome. In certain cases, though, it
may signify ambiguity or a non-committal response. The precise interpretation of the
head wobble depends on the discourse and the connection of the persons involved.
In the United States, head motions are often connected with nodding (up and down)
to express agreement or comprehension and shaking (left to right) to show
disagreement or denial. The Indian head wobble, with its side-to-side motion, might
look and sound quite different from these American head movements.
Understanding such cultural variations is essential for efficient cross-cultural
communication and the avoidance of misconceptions.
A key takeaway from this article is the distinction between gestures and other types
of movements. Gestures are distinctive in that they take place apart from objects,
coincide with speech, and have a symbolic function, such as aiding communication
or transmitting information. Furthermore, the progression of gesture production and
understanding in young infants emphasizes the significance of gestures for language
and cognitive development. Children have difficulty comprehending and performing
iconic gestures, which emphasizes the idea that gestures are more than just motor
simulations and involve sophisticated cognitive processing, making them important
for communication and language development. A key takeaway from the practice
quiz is that research by Dr. Ekman revealed a strong connection between a person’s
confidence level and their ability to accurately detect deception. In other words,
those who are more confident tend to be better at recognizing when someone is
lying. This conclusion highlights the need of taking into account both confidence and
accuracy when assessing the efficacy of deception detection technologies because
of their interconnected nature. A key takeaway from the video ??Understanding and
Detecting Deception – 6. Nonverbal Cues – Lecture 6? emphasizes that nonverbal
communication includes many elements outside words, such as voice and visual
cues. Contrary to popular belief, there is no evidence to support the claim that
certain signs, such as eye contact, fidgeting, or micro expressions, may reliably
identify deceit. It is difficult to identify deception purely only on nonverbal signals
since they are frequently ambiguous, subtle, and may not always be signs of
deception. Inconsistencies in a person’s tale or improbable explanations are better
indicators of deceit than smaller-scale trends. Nonverbal cues can offer some useful
information, but when trying to spot dishonesty, they should be used with caution and
in combination with other criteria.
Gesture and Movement
Study of communicative impact of body movement and gesture
Example: Person??s gait
Head movements, eye behavior, facial expressions, posture, movements of trunk, arms, legs, feet, hands, and fingers
Essential to study within context and culture
Theoretical Look at Gesture and Movement
Two general approaches to study of kinesics:
(Birdwhistell, 1952; 1970)
External variable approach
Views communication as a structural system and presumes system is independent of specific behaviors people engage in during particular interactions (Birdwhistell)
All behavior is socially learned and has communicative value
Can be categorized as allokinesis or kinemes
Structural Approach to Kinesics
Study of smallest and most basic units of behavior
These microbehaviors cannot be detected
Performed rapidly, and usually only detectable by mechanical means such as video recorders or computers
Several allokinesis together compose larger units of behavior called kines
Dittman (1971) major critic of Birdwhistell ??Behavior cannot be treated in the same way we treat verbal language?
Classification of human gestures and movements should be based on motions easily observed
(Ekman and Friesen)
Most commonly accepted system to categorize gestures and movements
SADFISH ï? SCADFISH
Sadness, (Contempt), Anger, Disgust, Fear, Interest, Surprise, Happiness
External Variable Approach to Kinesics
Speech dependent & Speech Independent
Five different types:
Types Of Gesture And Movement
Depends on current trends
Direct verbal translation
Known by group, class, culture, subculture
Can function in place of verbal communication
Users aware of their action and in control of gesture
Used intentionally by the sender to communicate specific message
Socially and culturally learned
Example: OK sign
Cannot stand alone or stimulate same meaning as verbal
Generate little to no meaning when not connected to speech
Example: ??so-so? gesture
Accents spoken words, phrases, or sentences
Slamming hand on desk
Represents cognitive processing of speaker
Repeatedly snapping finger while trying to think of an answer
Movements or gestures that serve as pictures or drawings
Drawing outline of male or female figure in air while describing attractive person
Gestures or body movements that maintain and regulate back-and-forth interaction, turn-taking behavior.
Learned gradually and are integral to communication socialization process
Not nearly intentional as emblems and illustrator.
Behaviors used to maintain or yield in conversation
Turn-yielding cues: discontinue talking.
(Example: long silent pause)
Turn-maintaining cues: continue talking.
(Example: increasing rate & loudness of speech)
Turn-requesting regulators: would like to talk
(Example: straightening posture)
Turn-denying behaviors: don??t wish to speak, encourage the speaker to continue
(Example: ??uh-huh? utterance)
Indicate both emotional reactions and strength of reactions
Primarily include facial expressions
May display an emotion you don??t actually feel
May repress expression of emotion felt
Behaviors that reveal true emotional states are usually unintentional
May include posture, limb movements, way he/she walks.
Intentional behaviors in response to
boredom or stress
Self-Adaptors ?? individual manipulates her /his own body (scratching, hair twisting)
Alter-Directed Adaptors ?? designed to protect individuals from other interactants (folding arms, unconscious leg movements)
Object-Focused Adaptors ?? unconscious manipulation of a particular object (tapping pen, smoking, twisting ring on finger)
Rich source of information about emotional states and relationships
Immediacy and relaxation communicate openness
Posture is normally studied in conjunction with other nonverbal signals to determine:
The degree of attention or involvement
The degree of status relative to the other interactive partner
The degree of liking for the other interactant
Inclusive vs. Non-Inclusive-
Include or block
Face-to-Face vs. Parallel Orientation
Face-to-Face – formal or professional interaction, need to monitor, sign of more active interaction
Parallel ?? neutral or passive
Example: The higher the status, the more relaxed/indirect orientation
Example: People of perceived equal status (friends), strive to maintain equality through posture
Congruence vs. Incongruence
Congruent ?? they imitate or share each other??s position and movements (agreement, equality, liking)
Matching Behavior -: ??similar behavior occurring at the same time?
Women are socialized to exhibit shrinkage in their postures.
Males are socialized to engage in expanding nonverbal acts.
Posture And Gender
Movement and Communicator Style
The way a person interacts to give form to content of messages
Most physically visible of all communicator styles
Masters at exaggeration
See the world as a stage
Tell fascinating stories
Have rhythmic voices
Rely on wide range of illustrators
Perceived as confident, conceited, self-assured, competitive, forceful, active, and enthusiastic
Use nonverbal cues to dominate listeners, expansive body posture and movements, quickly approach fellow interactants
Engages in exaggerated body motions and gestures while speaking
Frequent and Repetitive head movements and smiling
Collected and internally calm in anxiety-producing situations
Relaxed posture, movement, gesture
Seem immune to nervous mannerisms, communicate calmness, serenity, peace, confidence, comfortableness
Characterizes style of listening or receiving others?? messages.
Inversely related to dominant and dramatic styles.
Attentiveness shown through immediate posture, forward leaning, head nods, direct body orientation, etc.
Uses body activity that is expansive, unreserved, extroverted, approach-oriented
Signals individuals that they can communicate openly and freely
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